Pituitary Tumor Surgery – Diagnosis and Treatment

Pituitary Tumor Surgery

A pituitary tumor refers to unusual growths that develop in the pituitary gland. It is located behind the nose, at the base of the brain. Some of these tumors cause the pituitary gland to overproduce certain hormones that control vital biological functions. Others may cause the pituitary gland to underproduce certain hormones.

Most benign pituitary tumors are. It follows that they are not cancer. Pituitary adenomas are another term for these benign tumors. Most adenomas are slow-growing tumors that remain in or near the pituitary gland. Normally, they don’t spread to other bodily parts.

There are various methods for treating pituitary tumors. Surgery could be used to get rid of the tumor. Or, it may be possible to stop its growth by using medicine or radiation treatment. Medicine is sometimes used to control hormone levels.

Pituitary Adenomas Types

Below mentioned are the types of Pituitary Adenomas:

Functioning: These tumors produce hormones. Depending on the type of hormones they produce, they produce a variety of symptoms. There are various types of functioning pituitary adenomas, including those that produce:

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone: ACTH is another name for this hormone. Corticotroph adenomas are another name for these tumors.
  • Growth hormone: Somatotroph adenomas are the name given to these tumors.
  • Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone: These hormones are also referred to as gonadotropins. Gonadotroph adenomas are pituitary tumors that produce these hormones.
  • Prolactin: These tumors are also known as lactotroph adenomas or prolactinomas.
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone: Thyrotroph adenomas are the medical term for these tumors.

Nonfunctioning: Hormones aren’t produced by these adenomas. The strain their growth places on the pituitary gland, surrounding nerves, and the brain is a contributing factor to the symptoms they produce.

Macroadenomas: These adenomas are bigger. They are at least 1 centimeter long. That amounts to a little under half an inch. They could be working or not.

There are fewer of these adenomas. Less than one centimeter is how long they are. That amounts to a fraction of an inch. They might work properly or not.

Diagnosis of Pituitary Tumor Surgery

Pituitary tumors frequently go undetected or unnoticed. In many instances, this is due to the symptoms brought on by enormous tumors, known as macroadenomas, and functional adenomas, which are pituitary tumors that produce hormones. It’s also a result of how slowly they develop over time. Nonfunctioning microadenomas, which are small pituitary tumors that do not produce hormones, frequently have no symptoms. If they are found, it is usually the result of an imaging test—like an MRI or CT scan—performed for another reason.

Your doctor will likely conduct a physical examination, inquire about your personal and family medical history, and use that information to help them identify and diagnose a pituitary tumor. A pituitary tumor may also be detected with the following tests:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests
  • MRI scan
  • CT scan
  • Vision testing

Pituitary Tumor Treatment

Most pituitary adenomas don’t require medical attention. Since they are not cancer, it may be best to merely observe them over time if they don’t produce any symptoms. Depending on the kind, size, location, and long-term growth of the tumor, a specific course of treatment may be required. The treatment will also be affected by whether a tumor is making the body produce too many or too few of a particular hormone. The design of your treatment will also include your age and general health.

The purpose of the treatment is as follows:

  • Restore hormone concentrations to a normal range.
  • Protect the pituitary gland from more harm and reinstate its usual operation.
  • Reverse or stop the progression of tumor pressure-related symptoms.

Surgery to remove the tumor may be required to treat a pituitary adenoma. A pituitary adenoma may be treated with medication or radiation therapy. A group of medical specialists works together to provide treatment. The group could have a:

  • A neurosurgeon.
  • An ENT surgeon is commonly known as a nose and sinus surgeon.
  • An expert in hormone disorders known as an endocrinologist.
  • A radiation oncologist is a specialist in radiation therapy.

Pituitary Gland Surgery

The pituitary tumor is removed during surgery to treat it. It’s also referred to as tumor resection. A pituitary adenoma may prompt a surgeon to advise surgery if:

  • Limits vision by pressing on the optic nerves.
  • Leads to additional symptoms including facial pain or headaches.
  • Lowers hormone levels in the body because the pituitary gland is under strain.
  • Makes the body produce more amount of hormones.

The type of adenoma, its size, and location, as well as whether the tumor has spread into nearby tissues, all influence the outcomes of surgery. Craniotomy and endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal surgery are two procedures used to remove pituitary tumors.


For the management of pituitary adenomas, pharmaceutical treatment may be helpful. They could assist in reducing the quantity of hormones the body produces as a result of a tumor. Certain forms of pituitary tumors can also shrink with the help of some medicines.

Pituitary hormone replacement

Growth, thyroid, adrenal, reproductive, and water balance in the body are all regulated by the pituitary gland. A pituitary adenoma or its removal through surgery or radiation treatment may damage one or all of those. This is a result of the hormonal changes they may bring about. You might need to use hormone replacement treatment if your hormone levels drop to unhealthy levels. This can bring hormone levels back to normal.


Surgery for pituitary tumors is an essential kind of therapy. In addition to symptom relief and avoiding problems, it seeks to eliminate or decrease the tumor. Imaging tests and hormone level assessments are used in the diagnosis. Medicine and surgery are available as treatments. The option is determined by the type, size, and location of the tumor. For most situations, surgery is frequently the best option. Depending on the characteristics of the tumor, it may be carried out through the nose or skull. The goal of the procedure is to remove the tumor as much as possible while keeping the pituitary healthy. Endoscopic surgery is one example of a minimally invasive method that has improved outcomes and sped up recovery. After surgery, close monitoring and hormone replacement therapy may be required. To guarantee hormone balance and tumor recurrence identification, routine monitoring is crucial.